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Experiments by Invited Researchers

 

Large scale measurements of wave loads and mapping of impact pressure distribution at the underside of parapets

Project acronym: HyIV-FZK-06
Name of Group Leader: Dr. Gerald Mueller
User-Project Title: Large scale measurements of wave loads and mapping of impact pressure distribution at the underside of parapets
Facility: Large Wave Channel (GWK)
Proceedings TA Project: LARGE SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF WAVE LOADS AND MAPPING OF IMPACT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION AT THE UNDERSIDE OF WAVE RECURVES
Data Management Report: Report

User-Project Objectives

A physical study of the interaction regular and irregular waves with parapets was conducted. The experimental apparatus was designed based on the limits set by previous works for effective parapets. An effective parapet was defined here as a superstructure minimising overtopping and as such the water depth, the height of the structure and the testing wave parameters were chosen accordingly. Tests conducted with both regular and irregular waves interacting with three different parapet layouts; the seawards extend of the structure was increased from one layout to the other. For all conditions and layouts, wave induced forces and pressures at the underside of the parapet were recorded and mapped for the first time. The evolution of the water jet generated by breaking waves and its interaction with the structure was also recorded by a high speed camera located inside the flume. This data-set is currently analysed and is expected to provide valuable information regarding the thickness and the acceleration of the up-rushing water-jet helping us improve our theoretical understanding of the phenomena taking place. In aid of the latter an existing numerical code (see e.g. Lara et al. (2008)) is also currently modified and improved and is expected to result on a very useful parapet (and more) design tool. In short, our objectives included: 1. The measurement of impact induced forces and pressures at the parapet. 2. The recording of the up-rushing water jet characteristics and the subsequent overtopping (if any). 3. The use of the information acquired for the improvement of our theoretical knowledge and the formation of an update set of design guidelines. 4. The use of the information acquired for the improvement an existing numerical code.

Short description of the work carried out

Achievements: Objectives one and two were achieved at a high level resulting on a large data set which is currently analysed. Preliminary results of this analysis are encouraging and we expect objectives 3 and 4 to be also fulfilled. Difficulties: The physical dimensions of the structure and the violence of the wave conditions set a number of significant challenges which were, however, met with the valuable contribution of the group members and the facility’s manager and technical and scientific personnel.

Highlights of important research results

Although data analysis is still on-going, results acquired so far highlight a number of important research outcomes: • The pressure distribution at the underside of a wave recurve is recorded in high resolution for the first time. Results indicate a strong variability of impact induced pressures over both the horizontal and the vertical axis of the structure. In contradiction to previous observations for similar super-structures, peak pressures are seen to occur over the full size of the structure. • Forces induced by both regular and irregular waves were measured in large scale for the first time. Preliminary results indicate the dependence of these forces on the incoming wave conditions and the size of the super-structure. Force measurements in conjunction with the aforementioned pressure measurements contribute to improve our knowledge on the dynamic response of such structures. • A new methodology has been developed which allows the semi-automated analyses of high-speed videos and returns information on the wave induced water jet velocity and thickness. • Very extensive, large scale measurements on both velocity and the thickness of the wave induced water jets were conducted for the first time; previous works in large scale focused specifically on velocity measurements and referred to a small number of breaking waves. Results reveal a strong variability on the water jet velocity along the width of the vertical wall and a dependence on the incoming wave conditions. • Data and preliminary results are used for the calibration and the validation of a numerical model based on a CFD code An indicative video of the experiments conducted can be seen in: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6X4VABfYUc&feature=youtu.be

Publications
Dimitris Stagonas, Gerald Muller, Karunya Ramachandran, Stefan Schimmels, Alec Dane Distribution of impact induced pressures at the face of uniformly sloped sea-dikes; preliminary 2D results. , 2012 Burcharth, H.F. and Hughes, S.A., 2005. Chapter 2: Types and Functions of Coastal Structures, EM 1110-2 1100, Part VI, 28 February 2005. Davidse, M.P., 2009. Wave impact on asphaltic concrete revetments, MSc thesis, Delft University of Technology. Fuhrboter, A. and Sparboom, U., 1988. Full-scale wave attack of uniformly sloping sea dykes, Proceedings 21st International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, 2174-2188. Grune, J. 1988. Wave induced shock pressures under real state conditions, Proceedings 21st International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, 2340-2354. Grune, J. 1992. Loads on sloping seadykes and revetments from wave-induced Klein Breteler, M., 2007. Validatie van GOLFKLAP (Report H4134) (in Dutch), WL│Delft Hydraulics. Important findings also reported in Davidse (2009) Marth, R., Nehrig, M., Muller, G. and Wolters, G., 2005. Wave impact induced internal pressures in blockwork coastal structures. Available at: ftp://ftp.hamburg.baw.de/pub/Kfki/Bib/2005 iceland symposium/Data/B5.2/marth PA.pdf, on 7/7/2011. Recio, J. and Oumeraci, H., 2009. Processes affecting the hydraulic stability of coastal revetments made of GSC. Coastal Engineering, Elsevier, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 260-284. Shock pressures. Proceedings 23rd International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, 1175-1188. Stagonas, D. Muller, G. Batten W. and D. Magagna, 2011. Mapping the temporal and spatial distribution of experimental induced pressures at vertical seawalls: a novel method. 5th SCACR, Aachen, Germany. Stanczak, G., 2008. Breaching of sea dikes initiated from the seaside by breaking wave impacts, PhD Thesis, University of Braunschweig and University of Florence. TAW., 1984. Leidraad voor toepassing van asfalt in de waterbouw (in Dutch), Staatsuitgeverij, 's Gravenhage. Important findings also reported in Davidse (2009)
Karunya Ramachandran, Stefan Schimmels, Dimitris Stagonas, Gerald M?ller Measuring Wave Impact on Coastal Structures with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution ? Tactile Pressure Sensors a Novel Approach. , 2013 Bullock, G. N., Obhrai, C., Peregrine, D. H., and Bredmose, H., 2007. Violent breaking wave impacts. Part I: Results from large scale regular wave tests on vertical and sloping walls. Coastal Engineering. 54 (8), pp. 602?617, 2007. Bullock, G., Obhrai, C., M?ller, G., Wolters, G., Peregrine, H., and Bredmose, H., 2003. Field and laboratory measurement of wave impacts. Proc. Coastal Structures, 2003. ASCE, pp. 343?355. Cuomo, G., Allsop, W., Bruce, T., Pearson, J., 2010. Breaking wave loads at vertical seawalls and breakwaters. Coastal Engineering. 57, pp. 424?439. Goda, Y., 2000. ?Random seas and design of maritime structures?, 2nd Edition. Advanced Series on Ocean Engineering, vol. 15. World Scientific. Gr?ne, J. 1988. Wave induced shock pressures under real state conditions, Proc. 21st Int.Conf. Coastal Engineering, ASCE, New York, pp.2340-2354. Gr?ne, J. 1992. Loads on sloping seadykes and revetments from wave-induced shock pressures, Proc. 23rd Int.Conf. Coastal Engineering. pp.1175-1188. Lee, M.H., and Nicholls, H.R., 1999. Tactile sensing for mechatronics ? a state of the art survey. Mechatronics, (9), pp. 1-31. Stagonas, D., M?ller, G., Batten, W., and Magagna, D., 2011. Mapping the temporal and spatial distribution of experimental impact induced pressures at vertical seawalls: a novel method. 5th International Short Conference on Applied Coastal Research. RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Stagonas, D., M?ller, G., Ramachandran, K., Schimmels, S., and Dane, A., 2012. Distribution of impact induced pressures at the face of uniformly sloped sea dikes: Preliminary 2D Experimental Results. Proc.33rd Conf. Coastal Engineering. Santander, Spain. Tekscan, 2003. I-Scan Equilibration and Calibration Practical Suggestions (Rev.A). South Boston, MA 02127. Tekscan, Inc. 2009. I-Scan and High Speed I-Scan User Manual (Rev. N). South Boston, MA 02127. Tekscan, Inc. South Boston, USA. Available online at http://www.tekscan.com/sensor-technology, checked on 18/04/2013.
Dimitris Stagonas, Javier L. Lara, Inigo J. Losada, Pablo Higuera, Francisco F. Jaime, Konstantina Galani, Athanassios Dimas, Michalis Vousdoukas, Matthias Kudella, Gerald Muller Pressure distribution at the underside of wave recurves , 2014 Bruce, T., Allsop, N. W. H., & Pearson, J., 2002: Hazards at coast and harbour seawalls?velocities and trajectories of violent overtopping jets. Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, Cardiff, 2002. ASCE, New York. Kisacik, D., Troch, P., and Van Bogaert. P. 2012. Description of Loading Conditions Due to Violent Wave Impacts on a Vertical Structure with an Overhanging Horizontal Cantilever Slab. Coastal Engineering 60: 15pp. Kortenhaus, A. Haupt, R. and Oumeraci, H. 2001. Design aspects of vertical walls with steep foreland slopes. Proc Breakwaters, coastal structures and coastlines, London (ICE), 11 pp. Kortenhaus, A., Pearson, J., Bruce, T., Allsop, N. W. H., and van der Meer, J. W. 2003 Influence of parapets and recurves on wave overtopping and wave loading of complex vertical walls, Proc. Coastal Structures 2003, ASCE, Reston, Virginia (2003), 13pp. Lara, J. L., Losada, I. J., and Guanche, R. 2008. Wave interaction with low mound breakwaters using a RANS model. Ocean Engineering, Vol. 35, pp. 1388?1400. Losada, I., Lara, J., Guanche, R., and Gonzalez-Ondina, J. 2008. Numerical analysis of wave overtopping on high mound breakwaters. Coastal Engineering, Vol. 55, pp. 47?62. Owen, M.W. and Steele, A.A.J. 1991. Effectiveness of re-curved wave return walls. Report SR 261, HR Wallingford, Wallingford, UK. Pearson J., Bruce T., Allsop N. W. H. and Gironella X.: Violent wave overtopping?measurements at large and small scale. Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, Cardiff, 2002. ASCE, New York. Ramachandran, K., Schimmels, S., Stagonas, D., M?ller, G. (2013): Measuring Wave Impact on Coastal Structures with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution ? Tactile Pressure Sensors a Novel Approach, 35th IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China Shiravani, C., Vousdoukas, M., Schimmels, S., Stagonas, D. 2014. A methodology for measuring velocity and thickness of wave-induced up-rushing jets on vertical seawalls and superstructures. Proc.34th Conf. Coastal Engineering. Seoul, Korea. Stagonas, D., M?ller, G., Ramachandran, K., Schimmels, S., and Dane, A., 2012. Distribution of impact induced pressures at the face of uniformly sloped sea dikes: Preliminary 2D Experimental Results. Proc.33rd Conf. Coastal Engineering. Santander, Spain. Van der Meer, J.W. 2002. Technical report on wave run-up and wave overtopping at dikes. Report of the TAW, Technical Advisory Committee on Water Defences, The Netherlands. Vousdoukas, Wziatek, Almeida (2012): Coastal vulnerability assessment based on video wave run-up observations at a meso-tidal, reflective beach. Ocean Dyn. 62: 123-137. Wolters, G., Muller, G., Bruce, T., Obhrai, C. 2005. Large-scale experiments on wave downfall pressures, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Maritime Engineering 1588pp. Wood, D.J. and Peregrine, D.H. 1996. Wave impact beneath a horizontal surface, Proc. 25th Internat. Conf. on Coastal Engineering, Orlando, ASCE, 3, 10pp.
Gholamreza Shiravani, Michalis Vousdoukas, Stefan Schimmels and Dimitris Stagonas A methodology for measuring the velocity and thickness of wave-induced up-rushing jets on vertical seawalls and superstructures. , 2014 Aagaard, T., Holm, D., 1989. Digitization of wave runup using video records. J. Coast. Res. 5, 547-551. Allsop, N.W.H., Besley, P., and Madurini,L. 1995. Overtopping performance of vertical walls and composite breakwaters, seawalls and low reflection alternatives, Paper 4.7 in MCS Final Report, University of Hannover. Allsop, N.W.H., Bruce, T., Pearson, J., and Besley,P. 2005. Wave overtopping at vertical and steep seawalls, Proceedings of the ICE, Maritime Engineering,158, 3, 103-114. Bruce, T., Pearson, J., and Allsop, N.W.H. 2002. Hazards at coast and harbour seawalls-velocities and trajectories of violent overtopping jets, Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, 2216-2226. Burcharth, H.F., Lykke Andersen, T., Lara, J.L., 2014. Upgrade of coastal defence structures against increased loadings caused by climate change: A first methodological approach. Coastal Eng. 87, 112-121. Cat?lan, P.A., Haller, M.C., 2008. Remote sensing of breaking wave phase speeds with application to non-linear depth inversions. Coastal Eng. 55, 93-111. Franco, L., Gerloni, M. D., and Van der Meer, J.W. 1994. Wave overtopping on vertical and composite breakwaters, Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, 1030-1045. Stagonas, D., Lara, J. L., Losada, I. J., Higuera, P., Jaime, F. F., Galani, K., Dimas, A., Vousdoukas, M., Kudella, M., and Muller. 2014. Large scale measurements of wave loads and mapping of impact pressure distribution at the underside of wave recurves, Proceedings of the HYDRALAB IV Joint User Meeting, 1-10. Vousdoukas, M.I., Wziatek, D., and Almeida L.P. 2012. Coastal vulnerability assessment based on video wave run-up observations at a meso-tidal, reflective beach. Ocean Dyn, 62, 123-137. Vousdoukas, M.I., Kirupakaramoorthy, T., Oumeraci, H., de la Torre, M., W?bbold, F., Wagner, B., Schimmels, S., 2014. The role of combined laser scanning and video techniques in monitoring wave-by-wave swash zone processes. Coastal Eng. 83, 150-165. Vousdoukas, M.I., Wziatek, D., Almeida, L.P., 2012a. Coastal vulnerability assessment based on video wave run-up observations at a meso-tidal, reflective beach. Ocean Dyn. 62, 123-137. Vousdoukas, M.I., Wziatek, D., Almeida, L.P., 2012b. Coastal vulnerability assessment based on video wave run-up observations at a mesotidal, steep-sloped beach. Ocean Dyn. 62, 123-137. Vousdoukas, M.L., Velegrakis, A.F., Dimou, K., Zervakis, V., Conley, D.C., 2009. Wave run-up observations in microtidal, sediment-starved pocket beaches of the Eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Marine Systems 78, S37-S47. Wolters, G., Muller, G., Bruce, T., and Obhrai, C. 2005. Large-scale experiments on wave downfall pressures. Proceedings of the Proceedings of the ICE, Maritime Engineering, 158, 4, 137-145.
Francisco F. Jaime, Javier L. Lara, Dimitris Stagonas, Inigo J. Losada.Impact induced pressure distribution at the underside of wave recurves. , 2014 Bruce, T. Allsop, N.W.H., Perason, J. 2002. Hazards at coast and harbor seawalls ? velocities and trajectpries of violent overtopping jets. Proceedings of the 28th ICCE, Cardiff, 2002. ASCE, New York. Bullock, G.N., Obhrai, C. Peregrine, D.H., Bredmose, H. 2007. Violent breaking wave impacts. Part 1: results form large-scale regular wave tests on vertical and sloping walls. Coastal engineering, 54 (8), 602-617. Cuomo, G., Allsop, W., Bruce, T., & Pearson, J. (2010). Breaking wave loads at vertical seawalls and breakwaters. Coastal Engineering, 57(4), 424-439. EurOtop. 2007. Wave overtopping of sea defenses and related structures: Assessment manual, 2007. Environmental Agency, www.overtopping-manual.com. Hull, P., & M?ller, G. (2002). An investigation of breaker heights shapes and pressures. Ocean Engineering, 29(1), 59-79. Kirg?z, M.S., 1982. Shock pressure of breaking waves on vertical walls. J. Waterway Port, Coastal Ocean Div. ASCE 108, 87-103. Kortenhaus, A., Haupt, R., Oumeraci, H. 2001. Design aspects of vertical walls with steep foreland slopes. Proceedings of Breakwaters, Coastal Structures and Coastlines, London, 221.232. Kortenhaus, A., Pearson, J., Bruce, T., Allsop, N. W. H., and van der Meer, J. W. 2003. Influence of parapets and recurves on wave overtopping and wave loading of complex vertical walls, Proc. Coastal Structures 2003, ASCE, Reston, Virginia. Kisacik, D., Troch, P. & Van Bogaert, P. 2012. Description of loading conditions due to violent wave impacts on vertical structure with an overhanging horizontal cantilever slab. Coastal Engineering, 60, 201-226. Lara, J. L., Losada, I. J., and Guanche, R. 2008. Wave interaction with low mound breakwaters using a RANS model. Ocean Engineering, 35, 1388?1400. Losada, I., Lara, J., Guanche, R., and Gonzalez-Ondina, J. 2008. Numerical analysis of wave overtopping on high mound breakwaters. Coastal Engineering, 55, 47?62. Pearson, J., Bruce, T., Allsop, W., Kortenhaus, A., & van der Meer, J. 2004. Effectiveness of Recurve Walls in Reducing Wave Overtopping on Seawalls and Breakwaters. Coastal Engineering Conference, 9(4), 4404. Stagonas, D., M?ller, G., Batten, W., & Magagna, D. 2011. Mapping the temporal and spatial distribution of experimental impact induced pressures at vertical seawalls: a novel method. International Short Conference on Applied Coastal Research, 388. Stagonas, D., M?ller, G., Ramachandran, K., Schimmels, S., and Dane, A. 2012. Distribution of impact induced pressures at the face of uniformly sloped sea dikes: Preliminary 2D Experimental Results. Proc. 33rd Conf. Coastal Engineering. Santander, Spain. Ramachandran, K., Schimmels, S., Stagonas, D., M?ller, G. 2013. Measuring Wave Impact on Coastal Structures with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution ? Tactile Pressure Sensors a Novel Approach, IAHR World Congress. Chengdu, China Oumeraci, H., Klammer, P., & Kortenhaus, A. 1994. Impact loading and dynamic response of vertical breakwaters?review of experimental results. Proceedings of International workshop on Wave barriers in deepwaters, Japan, 347-361. Oumeraci, H., Bruce, T., Klammer, P., Easson, W.J. 1995. PIV-Measurements of breaking wave kinematics and impact loading of caisson breakwaters. Proc. Int. Conf. Port Eng. Dev. Countries, 3, 2394-2410.

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